Arts Curriculum Framework
THE PRACTICE OF CREATING
2 Diana Korzenik, Drawn to Art (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1985) 153-4.
3 See John Dewey, Art as Experience (New York: Minton, Balch and Company, 1934), and Herbert Kliebard, The Struggle for the American Curriculum, 1893-1958 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987).
4 See Viktor Lowenfeld, Creative and Mental Growth (New York: MacMillan, 1947).
5 Important position papers in this movement include Arts, Education and Americans Panel, Coming to Our Senses (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977), National Endowment for the Arts, Toward Civilization (Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1988). A significant, albeit controversial component in the debate over the role of arts education came from the California-based Getty Foundation for Education and the Arts, which began to use the term "discipline-based" art education (DBAE, i.e., a program that includes art criticism, art history, and aesthetics along with production activities) in its 1986 publication, Beyond Creating: The Place for Art in American Schools, and subsequent works.
6 This is a rapidly expanding body of research. See Nancy Welch with Andrea Greene, Schools, Communities, and the Arts: A Research Compendium (Tempe, AZ: Regents of University of Arizona, 1995), and works by Elliott Eisner, Howard Gardner, Maxine Greene, Jean Piaget, Ellen Winner, and Dennie Palmer Wolf in the Selected Resources Section. Periodicals such as the Journal of Aesthetic Education and the research journals of the professional arts education associations are useful resources for current studies in this area. The Center for the Arts in the Basic Curriculum, located in Hingham, MA, is a resource for summaries of research on the role of the arts in improving overall student achievement.
7 See Consortium of National Arts Education Associations, National Standards for Arts Education: Dance, Music, Theatre, Visual Arts (Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1994). These standards were developed by members of professional associations as part of the federal Goals 2000 education standards initiative. In addition to the Arts, voluntary national standards have been, or are being developed in Civics, Economics, English, Foreign Language, Geography, History, Mathematics, Physical Education, Science, Social Studies, Industry Skills, and Health. For information on the status of the other standards reports, contact The Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast and the Islands in Andover, MA.
8 See Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks, Common Chapters (Malden, MA: Massachusetts Department of Education, 1995), Chapter Two, Guiding Principle One: "Each and every student will be held to high standards and expectations."
9 Maxine Greene, "Arts Education on the Humanities: Towards a Breaking of Barriers," (Address to the Maine Alliance of Arts Education, 1986, 6).
10 See Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind (New York: Basic Books, 1983) and Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1993).
11 See Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks, Chapter Two, Guiding Principles Two and Three, for a discussion of teaching and assessment strategies for including all students. See also the listings under "Assessment" in this Framework's Selected Resources Section.
12 See Ann L. Brown and others, "Distributed Expertise in the Classroom" in G. Salamon, ed., Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993) 188-228.
13 See Sue Bredekamp, ed., Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children From Birth Through Age Eight (Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1987).
14 Elliot Eisner. "What Really Counts in Schools," Educational Leadership, February 1991, 15.
15 In the article cited above, Eisner defines literacy as "the ability to encode or decode meaning in any of the forms used in the culture to represent meaning," 15.
16 The Massachusetts Department of Education collected data on staffing and programs in an arts education survey, 1995.
17 Laura Chapman, Instant Art, Instant Culture: The Unspoken Policy for American Schools (New York: Teachers College Press, 1982) 12-13.
18 See James and Cheryl Banks, Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, 2nd ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1993).
19 Massachusetts Department of Education Foreign Language survey, 1994.
20 See Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks, Chapter Two, Guiding Principle Five for a discussion of ways of organizing interdisciplinary curricula.
21 See the books and articles under "Assessment" in the Selected Resources Section.
22 See Ellen Winner, ed., Arts PROPEL: Handbooks (Cambridge, MA: Project Zero, Harvard University, 1991-1993).
23 Dennie Palmer Wolf and Nancy Pistone. Taking Full Measure: Rethinking Assessment through the Arts (New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1991) 8.
24 For information about initial steps in nationwide large-scale arts assessment, see National Assessment Governing Board, 1996 NAEP Arts Education Assessment and Exercise Specifications (Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1994).
25 Ibid., 52. This example is presented only for information, and should not be interpreted as a definitive model for statewide arts assessment in Massachusetts. It should be noted that such models are still being piloted, refined, and revised by the NAEP Arts Assessment steering committee.
26 See Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks Chapters Three and Four for discussions of school restructuring and using the Frameworks as a catalyst for professional development.
27 See Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks Chapter Two for a discussion of Habits of Mind in the Frameworks.